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The Concept of Personality Revealed Through The Pancanikaya - Ven. Thich Chon-Thien
Institute of Buddhist Studies
Saigon, Vietnam

Part Three: The Concept of Personality Revealed Through The Pancanikaya


III.2 Chapter 2

Man is Pancakkhandha

-ooOoo-

Name-and-Form element (NÓma-R¨pa) as discussed in "the operation of the twelve elements of Dependent Origination" are the five aggregates of man (PancakkhandhÓ), therefore the operation of the twelve elements really is the operation of PancakkhandhÓ, and realizing that operation means realizing what a man really is.

At the Deer Park (MigadÓya), Isipatana at BÓrÓnasý, right after the first day of teaching the Four Noble Truths (CattÓri AriyasaccÓni), from the second day to the fifth, Lord Buddha explained the doctrine of PancakkhandhÓ to MahÓthera Kondanna and his four Dhamma friends. It runs that:

"At Benares, in the Deer Park was the occasion (for this discourse)At that time the Exalted One thus addressed the band of five brethren:"Body, brethren, is not the self..., feeling is not the self... likewise perception, the activities and consciousness are not the self...

Moreover, by this teaching thus uttered the hearts of those five brethren were freed from the Ósavas without grasping". (1)

("BÓrÓnasiyam nidÓnam MigadÓye // Tatra kho, BhagavÓ, pancavaggiye bhikkhu¨ Ómantesi // la // etad avoca // Ru¨pam bhikkhave, anattÓ // ... VedanÓ anattÓ / ... SannÓ anattÓ // ... SankhÓrÓ anattÓ // ... VinnÓnam anattÓ // ... Idam avoca BhagavÓ // ..imasmimca pana veyyÓkaranasmim bhannamÓne pancavaggiyÓnam bhikkhunam anupÓdÓya Ósavehi cittÓni vimuccimsu ti//"). (2)

PancakkhandhÓ is the second discourse which helped the first five disciples of Lord Buddha destroy completely their defilements to attain the Arahanthood to see the truth of life and true happiness. Let’s now examine Lord Buddha’s teachings on it.

III.2.1:THE MEANING OF PANCAKKHANDHA

Lord Buddha defined:

" I will teach you, brethren, the five factors and the five factors that have to do with grasping. Do Ye listen to it. And what, brethren, are the five factors? All body, brethren, be it past, future or present, inward or outward, gross or subtle, low or lofty, far or near, that is called "the body - factor". Every feeling, perception, all the activities, every consciousness, be it past, future or present, inward or out ward, etc. That is called the "consciousness - factor".

These five, brethren, are called the five factors. And what, brethren, are the five factors that have to do with grasping? Every body, brethren, be it past, future or present..., be it far or near, is a co - aÓsava, and has to do with grasping. That is called the five factors that have to do with grasping. Every perception...; All the activities...; whatever consciousness..." (3)

("Panca, bhikkhave, khandhe desissÓmi pancupÓdÓnakkhandhe ca // tam sunÓth// Katame ca, bhikkhave, pancakkhandhÓ // Yam kinci, bhikkhave, ru¨pam atýtÓnÓgatapaccuppannam ... // YÓkÓci vedanÓ... // Ye Keci sankhÓrÓ...

Yam kinci vinnÓnam atitÓnÓpaccuppannam... // Ime vuccanti bhikkhave, pancakkhandhÓ // Katame ca, bhikkhave, pancupÓdÓnakkhandhÓ // Yam kinci, bhikkhave, rupam ... upÓdÓnýyam ayam vuccati rupupÓdÓnakkhandho // YÓ kÓci vedanÓ // pe //

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, pancupÓdÓnakkha-ndhÓti //") (4)

The above quotation says that:

Aggregate of body (or form) is understood as a person’s physical body, bodies of others and the material world. Aggregate of feeling includes feeling of suffering, of happiness and of indifference. It is known as feelings arising from eye - contact, ear - contact, nose - contact, tongue - contact, body - contact and mind - contact.

Aggregate of perception includes perception of body, perception of sound, perception of odour, perception of taste, perception of touch (or tangibles), and perception of mental objects (or phenomena).

Aggregate of activities (or volition) is all mental, oral and bodily activities. it also is understood as volitionalacts occasioned by body, by sound, by odour, by taste, by touching or by ideas. Aggregate of consciousness includes eye - consciousness, ear - consciousness, nose - consciousness, tongue - consciousness, body - consciousness and mind - consciousness.

Such is a person ! He is conditioned by this physical and mental world. He relates closely to others, to society, and to nature, but can never exist by himself. Therefore, he must be selfless, impermanent. Because of selflessness and impermanence, a person who always grasp selfness and permanence feels suffering in life, as Lord Buddha declared:

"Body, brethren, is impermanent. What is impermanent that is suffering. What is suffering, that is void of self. What is void of self, that is not mine, I am not it, it is not myself. That is how it is to be regarded by perfect insight of what it really is.

Feeling is impermanent. etc.

Perception is impermanent. ...

Activities are impermanent. ...

Conscious is impermanent. ..." (5)

(" Ru¨pam, bhikkhave, aniccam // yad aniccam tam dukkham // yam dukkham tad anattÓ // yad anattÓ tam netam mama neso ham- asmi na meso attÓ ti // Evam etam yathÓbhu°tam sammappannÓya datthabbam // VedanÓ aniccÓ ... // SannÓ aniccÓ .... // SankhÓrÓ aniccÓ ... // VinnÓnam aniccam...

Evam etam yathÓbhu°tam sammappannÓya datthabbam //") (6)

And:

" Body, brethren, is void of the self. That which is the cause, that which is the condition of the arising of body, that also is void of self. How, brethren, can body, which is compounded of the selfless, come to be the self?

Feeling... Perception... The Activities... Consciousness is void of the self. That which is the cause, that which is... that also is void of the self. How can that consciousness, which is compounded of the selfless, come to be the self?" (7)

("Ru¨pam, bhikkhave, ÓnattÓ // yo pi hetu yo pi paccayo ru¨passa uppÓdÓya so pi anattÓ //anattasambhutam, bhikkhave, ru¨pam kuto attÓ bhavissati //

VedanÓ anattÓ // ... SannÓ anattÓ // ...

SankhÓrÓ anattÓ //... VinnÓnam anattÓ // yo pi hetu yo pi paccayo vinnÓnassa uppÓdÓya so pi anattÓ // anattasambhu°tam, bhikkhave, vinnÓnam kuto attÓ bhavissati // //") (8)

The truth of a man is selfless: it is not his self, it is not his, and he is not it, while the contemporary personality theorists and educators tend to search for a self and consider that: it is his self, it is his and he is it, how can they come to solutions for individuals’ problems?(!) Here is the very crucial point from which the personality theorists and educators know what and how to educate individuals for a good society and environment they are living in, and for their happiness. Evidently, it is not easy to convince people to accept this truth of life, but the point is people should not keep themselves away from it. This demands education to find the way to do to help people see it as the following teaching shows:

" Just as if, brethren, this river Ganges should carry down a huge lump of foam, and a keen - sighted man should see it, observe it and look close into its nature. So seeing it, observing it and looking close into its nature, he would find it empty, he would find it unsubstantial, he would find it without essence. What essence, brethren, could there be in a lump of foam? Suppose, brethren, in autumn time, when the sky-god rains down big drops, a bubble rises on the water and straight way bursts, and a keen - sighted man should see it, observe it. look close into its nature. So seeing it, observing it, and looking close into its nature, he would find it empty, he would find it unsubstantial, he would find it without essence. What essence, brethren, could there be in a bubble on the water?

Even so, brethren, whatsoever feeling, be it past, future or present, be it far or near, a brother sees... he finds it without essence. What essence, brethren, could there be in feeling? ..." (9)

("SeyyathÓpi, bhikkhave, ayam GangÓ nadýmahantam phenapindam Óvaheyya // tamenam CakkhumÓ puriso passeyya nijjhÓyeyya yoniso upaparikkheyya // Tassa tam passato nijjhÓyato yoniso upaparikkhato rittakanneva khÓyeyya tucchakanneva khÓyeyya asÓrakanneva khÓyeyya // Kinhi siyÓ, bhikkhave, phenapinde sÓro // SeyyathÓpi, bhikkhave, saradasamaye thullaphusitake deve vassante udake bubbulam uppajjati ceva nirujjhati ca // tam evam cakkhumÓ puriso passeyya nijjhÓyeyya yoniso upaparikkheyya // tassa tam passato nijjhÓyato yoniso upaparikkhato rittakan-neva khÓyeyya // tucchakanneva khÓyeyya asÓrakanneva khÓyeyya // kinhi siyÓ, bhikkhave, udakabubbule sÓro // Evam eva kho, bhikkhave, yÓ kÓci vedanÓ atýtÓnÓgatapaccuppannÓ // pe // ... kinhi siyÓ, bhikkhave, vedanÓya sÓro //") (10)

It is similar for a mirage seen in the dry season at high noontide compared with consciousness and other aggregates.

If a man sees that truth, he comes to feel disgust at aggregates; feeling disgust he is repelled; by repulsion he is set free and comes to the Insight that: he is free.

Now, following that regard to things, let us take a look deep into men’s physical bodies, observe and analyse them, what can we realize?

That physical body comes from a foetus made up by the spermatozoon and semen. Thesespermatozoon and semen were created by the essence of food coming from many conditions in nature which includes the existence of the Sun about 150 million kilometers away from here.

That baby (child) has been brought up also by food, etc. It exists out of the intention of a person, and changes all the time...

How can that body regarded as his own self? Similarly, analysing the aggregate of feeling will help a person see :

- Feeling aggregate is nothing but a mass of feelings coming from touching which is but the contact of the inward part and the outward part of the body aggregate. If body aggregate is seen as not the "I", the "mine" or the "my self" and as emptiness, so is feeling aggregate.

For perception aggregate, it is the perceptions of body, of sound, of smell, of taste, of touch and of phenomena. These things belonging to body aggregate are empty, as mentioned above, so those perceptions are also empty: they must not be considered as the "I", the "mine" or the "my self"

For Activities aggregate, they are known as the thought of body, of sound, of smell, of taste, of touch, and of mental objects, but body, sound, ..., are empty and considered as not the "I", the "mine" the "my self" so Activities aggregate must be regarded similarly.

For consciousness aggregate, it is the cognition arising from eye - contact, ear - contact, nose - contact, tongue - contact, body contact and mind - contact. Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are empty and not the "I", the "mine" or the "my self"; so is consciousness.

What is called a man is a compound of the five aggregates which are empty, he must be selfless and not the "I", the "mine" or the "my self". This sounds rather strange but true.

Such a regard to the five aggregates is that of wisdom (pannÓ or vijja) which can help a person to come out of all troubles. It suggests a person to train himself for a regard of wisdom to things, but not for the search for a self or personality.

Here, an individual may ask: if "no-self" is the true self of a human being, then who acts? Who receives the result of his actions? - These questions implying the meaning of a "self" must belong to self - thought which is ignorance (avijja) and is of conception but not of reality. In fact, human beings are there, their actions are there, and the results of their actions they receive are there. No question on "who" or "why" exists in reality: it is what to live with, but not to talk about or to think of. There are only two things to be concerned in the fateful existence of a human being: his obsessing suffering and his requirement to find out the way to the cessation of that suffering. His main problem is how to have a right view on these two things as Lord buddha taught His disciple, KaccÓnagotta, that:

" From the very lips of the Exalted one, friend Channa, from his very lips as he taught brotherKaccÓnagotta, I heard this: "On two things, KaccÓna, does this world generally base its view - on existence and on non - existence. Now he who with right insight sees the arising of the world as it really is, does not believe in the non - existence of the world. But, KaccÓna, he who with right insight sees the ceasing of the world as it really is, does not believe in the existence of the world.

Grasping after systems, imprisoned by dogmas in this world, KaccÓna, for the most part. And he who does not go after, does not grasp at, does not take his stand on this system - grasping, this dogma, this mental bias, - such an one does not say it is my soul. He who thinks, that which arises is but ill: that which ceases, it is ill such an one has no doubts; no perplexity. In this matter, knowledge not borrowed from others comes to him. Thus far, KaccÓna, goes right view."

"All exists", KaccÓna, - that is one extreme.

"Nought exists" KaccÓna, - that is the other extreme. Not approaching either extreme, KaccÓna, the TathÓgata teaches you a doctrine by the middle way: "Conditioned by ignorance come the activities, conditioned by activities comes consciousness, and so forth. Thus is the arising of this whole mass of ill. By the utter fading away and ceasing of ignorance comes the ceasing of the activities, and so forth. Thus is the ceasing of this entire mass of ill". (11)

("SammukhÓ me tam, Óvuso Channa, Bhagavato sutam sammukhÓ ca patiggahitam KaccÓnagottam bhikkhum ovadantassa // Dvayanissito khvÓyam KaccÓna loko, yebhuyyena atthi tanceva natthi tanca // Lokasamudayam, kho KaccÓna, yathÓbhu¨tam sammappannÓya passato yÓ loke natthitÓ sÓ na hoti // loka nirodham kho, KaccÓna, yathÓbhu¨tam sammappannÓya passato yÓ loke atthitÓ sÓ na hoti// UpÓyupÓdÓnÓbhinivesavinilbandho khÓyam, KaccÓna, loko yebhuyyena // tancÓyam upÓyupÓdÓnam cetaso adhitthÓnÓbhinivesÓnusayÓna upeti na upÓdiyati // nÓdhitthÓti AttÓ me ti // Dukkham eva uppajjamÓnam uppajjati dukkham niruddhamÓnam nirujjhatýti na kankhati na vicikicchati aparapaccayÓ nÓnam evassa ettha hoti // EttÓvatÓ kho, KaccÓna, sammÓditthi hoti //

Sabbam attýti kho, KaccÓna, ayam eko anto // Sabbam natthýti ayam dutiyo anto // Ete te KaccÓna ubho ante anupagamma majjhena TathÓgato dhammam deseti // AvijjÓpaccayÓ sankhÓrÓ... pe... Evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hoti //") (12)

So the above mentioned root problem of human beings was taught and emphasized by Lord Buddha. It was emphasized several times by Him as the central point of His teaching as recorded here and there in the PancanikÓya. He said:

" Both formely and now also, it is just sorrow and the ceasing of sorrow that I proclaim" (13)

("SÓdhu sÓdhu, AnurÓdha, pubbe cÓham, AnurÓdha, etarahi ca dukkhanceva pannÓpemi dukkhassa ca nirodhanti //"). (14)

Lord Buddha, in addition to the above teaching, also emphasized what should be understood by an individual, and what is the understanding of it so clearly that:

" Brethren, I will show you things that are to be understood, likewise understanding. Do ye listen to it.

And what, brethren, are the things to be understood, Body, brethren, is a thing to be understood: feeling is a thing to be understood: perception, the activities and consciousness also. These, brethren, are the things that are to be understood.

And what, brethren, is understanding? The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of illusion: that; brethren, is called "understanding". (15)

(" ParinÓnÓeyye ca, bhikkhave, dhamme desisÓmi Parinnanca // tam sunÓtha//

Katame ca, bhikkhave, parinneyyÓ dhammÓ // Rupam, bhikkhave, parinneyyo dhammo // VedanÓ parinneyyo dhammo // sannÓ... // sankhÓrÓ ... // vinnÓnam... // Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, parinneyyÓ dhammÓ // KatamÓ ca, bhikkhave, parinnÓ // Yo, bhikkhave, rÓgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo // ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, parinnÓti //") (16)

In short, Lord Buddha’s teachings recorded in PancanikÓya are basically concentrated on introducing the five aggregates and the way of dealing with men’s desires for them which means introducing the arising of the five aggregates and the ceasing of them. This is a very practical and existential way of education that suggests to men the purpose of education - which is happiness or the cessation of suffering -, and the content of education - which is the understanding of the five aggregates and the way of extinguishing sufferings arising from them - That way also suggests that the course of modern education, in the name of human beings and their happiness in this very life, should be based on that purpose and content of education. The search for truth of man and universe now should turn to be the realization of the five aggregates, the operation of which will be mentioned next.

III.2.2: THE OPERATION OF PANCAKKHANDHA

As mentioned in (III.2.1.) the operation of the five aggregates is that of Name-and-Form (nÓma - rupa) of Dependent Origination and so is the operation of Dependent Origination itself. And, the five aggregates co - exist; they cannot separate from each other. This is an important thing to be noticed before mentioning the operation of each aggregate.

The operation of Consciousness (Vinnana)

Consciousness is the cause of Name-and-Form element in Dependent Origination, and so it is understood as the cause of the five aggregates on the one hand, and on the other hand it is conditioned by the other eleven elements of Dependent Origination as it is implied in the following teaching:

" Were a man, brethren, to declare thus: "Apart from body, apart from feeling, apart from perception, apart from the activities, I will show forth the coming or the going or the decease or the rebirth of consciousness" - to do that were impossible.

If lust for body, brethren, is abandoned by a brother, by that abandonment of lust its foothold is cut off. Thereby there is no platform for consciousness. Likewise as regards feeling, perception, the activities.

So also, brethren, if lust for the consciousness element be abandoned by a brother, by that abandonment of lust, its foothold is cut off. Thereby there is no platform for consciousness. Without that platform, consciousness has no growth, it generates no action and is freed: by freedom it is steady: by its steadiness it is happy: owing to happiness it is not troubled. Being untroubled, of itself it becomes utterly weel, so that it knows: "destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous; done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter".) (17)

("Yo bhikkhave evam vadeyya // Aham annatraru¨pÓ annatra vedanÓya annatra sannÓya annatra sankhÓrehi vinnÓnassa Ógatim vÓ gatim vÓ cutim vÓ upapattim vÓ vuddhim vÓ virulhim vÓ vepullam vÓ pannÓpessÓmýti netam thÓnam vijjati //

R¨padhÓtuyÓ ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno rÓgo pahýno hoti // rÓgassa pahÓnÓ vocchijjatÓram - manam patitthÓ vinnÓnassa na hoti // VedanÓya dhÓtuyÓ ce, bhikkhave // SannÓdhÓtuyÓ ce bhikkhave // SankhÓra... VinnÓna...

Tad apatitthitam vinnÓnam aviruÓlham anabhisankhÓrÓnca vimuttam // vimuttattÓ thitam thitattÓ santusitam santusitattÓ na paritassati // aparitassam paccattanneva parinibbÓyati // KhýnÓ jÓti vusitam brahmacariyam katam karanýyam nÓparam itthattÓyÓti pajÓnÓtýti //") (18)

Lust for body, feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness is a mental activity which belongs to the Activities element (sankhÓra) of Dependent Origination or Activities aggregates of the Five aggregates. Owing to this lust, consciousness arises, develops and matures. This lust for the Five aggregates exists because of the existence of the satisfaction of the Five aggregates. This satisfaction exists owing to the fact that one attaches to the selfness of things which is called Ignorance (avijjÓ).If the attachment to things (or Ignorance) ceases to exist, the satisfaction of things cannot exist and one’s lust for the satisfaction of things also ceases to exist.If one’s lust for things ceases to exist, the cause of sufferings - which aregrasping, becoming, birth, old-age - cannot appear; then one comes to extinguish all troubles and attain happiness of one’s free mind. This also means the cessation of consciousness.

Another aspect of the operation of Consciousness may be regarded as the cause, the origin and the condition of Name-and-Form as mentioned in (II.1.2.) - "the meaning and operation of the twelve causes - but it is not an entity: it includes six groups: eye - consciousness exists when there exists the contact between eyes and forms, ear - consciousness exists when there exists the contact between ears and sounds, ..., and mind -consciousness exists when there exists the contact between mind and mental objects. If the contact does not exist, consciousness cannot be present and cannot operate. So, consciousness is but the existence of a group of conditions which must not be regarded as the "I", the "mine" or the "myself"

The operation of Activities aggregate (sankhara)

Activities aggregate is the very Activities element of Dependent Origination. It is a compound of mental activities, oral activities and bodily activities. It is also regarded as one’s will to live and defined by Lord Buddha as follows:

"And what, brethren, are the Activities? These six seats of will: the will that is in body, sound, odour, taste, touch, and in mental images. These, brethren, are called the Activities. From the arising of contact, comes the arising of the activities. From the ceasing of contact is the ceasing ofactivities." (19)

("Katame ca, bhikkhave, sankhÓrÓ // chayime, bhikkhave, cetanÓkÓyÓ // ru¨pasancetanÓ // pe / dhammasancetanÓ // ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, sankhÓrÓ // PhassasamudayÓ sankhÓrasamudayo // phassasamudayÓ sankharÓnirodho // ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo sankhÓranirodhagÓminý patipadÓ // seyyathýdam sammÓditthi // pe // sammÓsamÓdhi //") (20)

The above quotation and what has been expressed in the Activities element of Dependent Origination in part (II.1.2.) shows that:

* All thoughts of and desires for body, sound, odour, smell, taste, and mental images of a person make up Activities aggregate (sankhÓra khandha).

* If contact is not present, his feeling is absent; and his desire for things does not exist, his thought of thing does not come into existence either. This means Activities aggregate is an empty entity.

* All psychological activities of a person - such as wishes, vows, wholesome and unwholesome thoughts, hate, love, jealousy, self - pride, mental reactions to life... - which have created his life in the present and in the next existence are of Activities aggregate. These things make sense for life, without them life becomes meaningless. However, the operation of them is but the operation of an illusion of a self (or ignorance) which says the true meaning of all values of ahuman life is very shadowy.

In a more positive expression of that operation, Lord Buddha taught His disciples that:

" And what, monks, is the undertaking of dhamma that is suffering in the present and results in suffering in the future? In this case, monks, someone, even with suffering, even with grief, becomes one to make onslaught on creatures he experiences suffering and grief. Even with suffering, even with grief; he becomes one who takes what was not given..., he becomes one to behave wrongly in regard to sense pleasures..., he becomes a liar..., a slanderer..., a harsh speaker..., a frivolous talker..., he becomes covetous..., malevolent in thought... of wrong view, and because of his wrong view he experiences suffering and grief. He, at the breaking up of the body after dying uprises in a sorrowful state, a bad bourn, the abyss, Niraya Hell". (21)

("Katamanca, bhikkhave, dhammasamÓdÓnam paccuppannadukkhanc’eva Óyatinca dukkhavipÓkam: Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco sahÓpi dukkhena sahÓpi domanassena pÓnÓtipÓtý hoti pÓnÓtipÓtÓpacayÓ ca dukkham domanassam patisamvedeti, sahÓpi dukkhena sahÓpi domanassena adinnÓdÓyý hoti adinnÓdÓnapaccayÓ ca dukkham domanassam patisamvedeti, sahÓpi dukkhena sahÓpi domanassena kÓmesu micchÓcÓrýhoti kÓmesu micchÓcÓrapaccayÓ cadukkham domanassam patisamvedeti, sahÓpi dukkhena sahÓpi domanassena musÓvÓdý hoti musÓvÓdapaccayÓ ca dukkham domanassam patisamvedeti, sahÓpi dukkhena sahÓpi domanassena pisunÓvÓco hoti pisunÓvÓcÓpaccayÓ ca dukkham domanassam patisamvedeti,... pharusÓvÓco..., ... samphappalÓpý..., ... abhijjhÓlu..., ... byÓpannacitto..., .. micchÓditthi hoti micchÓditthipaccayÓ ca dukkham domanassam patisamvedeti. So kÓyassa bhedÓ param maranÓ apÓyam duggatim vinipÓtam nirayam upapajjati. Idam vuccati, bhikkhave, dhammasamÓdÓnam paccuppan-nadukkhan- c’eva Óyatinca dukkhavipÓkam"). (22)

The above are ten common actions of an evil worldly man: three of them relate to body; four relate to speech; and three relate to mind.

In the next paragraphs of the discourse (suttam), Lord Buddha declared: with regard to those ten volitional actions, there are people who did them with pleasure and felt satisfied after having done in the present would receive sufferings as results in the future; there are people, who abstained from doing them with suffering and grief, and experienced suffering and grief in the present, would arise in a good, a heaven existence after dying; there are people who abstained from doing them with pleasure and happiness and experienced pleasure and happiness in the present, would arise in a good bourn, a heaven existence after dying.

Those ten volitional actions, either good or evil, are of the operation of Activities aggregate in the sphere of psychological conditions of the sensual world which is dominated by the five mental factors called five hindrances: sensual desire, ill - will, sloth and torpor, flurry and worry, and doubt, as Lord Buddha taught:

" ... The hindrance of sensual desire, of ill - will, of sloth and torpor, of flurry and worry, and the hindrance of doubt. "Tis a heap of bad things !" Monks, and in saying this of these five hindrances, one would speak rightly; for verily, monks, the whole is a heap of bad things, that is to say: these five hindrances". (23)

("KÓmacchandaniÔvaranam,vyÓpadaniÔvaranam, thýnamiddhaniÔvaranam,uddhaccakukkuccaniÔvaranam vicikicchÓnývaranam.

AkusalarÓsý ti, bhikkhave, vadamÓno ime panca niývarane sammÓ vadamÓno vadeyya. Kevalo h’ayam, bhikkhave, akusalarÓsi yad idam ime panca nývaranÓ ti.") (24)

Those hindrances overspread the heart of a person, and weaken his insight. To control and deal with them, the person should open a new course of operation for his Activities aggregate by cultivating two conditions of meditation: Calm (or samatha) and Insight (or vipassanÓ) as Lord Buddha showed:

" Monks, for the full comprehension of lust, anger, delusion, hate, hypocrisy and spite, envy and grudging, deceit and treachery, obstinacy andimpetuosity, pride and overweening pride, mental intoxication and negligence, for the utter destruction, abandoning, ending, decay, fading out, ending, giving up and renunciation thereof these two conditions must be cultivated. What two?

* Calm and Insight. These two must be cultivated." (25)

("RÓgassa dosassa mohassa kodhassa upanÓhassa makkhassa palÓsassa issÓya macchariyassa mÓyÓya sÓtheyyassa thambhassa sÓrambhassa mÓnassa atimÓnassa madassa pamÓdassa, bhikkhave, abhinnÓya parinnÓya parikkhayÓyapahÓnÓya khayÓya vayÓya virÓgÓya nirodhÓya cÓgÓya patinissaggÓya dve dhammÓ bhÓvetabbÓ katame dve?

Samatho ca vipassanÓ ca... pe...Ime dve dhammÓ bhÓvetabbÓ ti"). (26)

According to the Discourse on "The Applications of Mindfulness" (SatipatthÓnasutta),the Discourse on "The Uninterrupted" (Annupadasuttam) -Middle Length Sayings Vol. I. and Vol. III - and many other discourses in Middle Length Sayings, if a person lives with insight, or practises insight, aloof from sensual pleasures and unskilled states of mind he will enter on and abide in the first meditation which is accompanied by the five meditative factors: initial thought, sustained thought, rapture, joy, and one - pointedness of mind. These five factors come and remove the five hindrances; initial thought removes sloth and torpor, sustained thought removes doubt, rapture removes ill - will, joy removes flurry and worry, and one - pointedness of mind removes sensual desire.

If the person allays initial and sustained thought, he will enter on and abide in the second meditation which is devoid of initial and sustained thought.

If he continues practising and allaying the meditative mental factor of rapture, he will enter on and abide in the third meditation which is accompanied with joy and one - pointedness of mind.

Again, if he gets rid of joy, anguish, he will enter on and abide in the fourth meditation being with equanimity and one - pointedness of mind

These four states of mind, from the first meditation to the fourth meditation, are psychological states of mind of the person who puts the operation of his Activities aggregate into meditation.

Again, if the person abides in the fourth meditation and cultivates insight (vipassanÓ) he will come to gradually destroy the "Ten mental defilements" (dasa kilesas) to attain the Four Sainthoods (ariyamaggam and ariyaphalam) as follows:

(1) Through insight (vipassanÓ), if he destroys the first three mental defilements: belief in personality (sakkÓya-ditthi), doubt (vicikicchÓ) and attachment to rules and rituals (sýlabbataparÓmÓsa), he becomes a Stream-Enterer (SotÓpanna)

(2) If he continues cultivating and weakening sensuous craving (KÓmarÓga) and ill - will (vyÓpÓda), he becomes an Once-Returner (SakadÓgÓmi).

(3) If he destroys completely the above five mental defilements, he becomes a Never-Returner (AnÓgÓmi)

(4) Lastly, if he continues destroying the last five mental defilements: craving for fine material existence, craving for formless existence, conceit, restlessness and ignorance (ru¨parÓga, aru¨parÓga, mÓna, uddhacca and avijjÓ), he becomes an Arahanta who destroys completely all causes of sufferings.

During the period of time of practising insight (vipassanÓ), the practician puts the operation of Activities aggregate under the control of insight, or wisdom (pannÓ) ; this means the operation of wisdom, but not of ignorance (avijjÓ), which leads him to liberation and happiness in the here - and - now.

Such is the operation of Activities aggregate!

Operation of Perception aggregate:

As discussed before, Perception aggregate is conditioned by the other four aggregates, so its operation must be the operation of Consciousness, or of Activities, or of the twelve elements of Dependent Origination. In Kindred Sayings, Vol. III, Lord Buddha defined:

"And what, brethren, is perception? It is these six seats of perception: perception of sights, perceptionof sounds, of smells, tastes, and mental images. This is called perception. From the arising of contact (phassa) is the arising of perception, by the ceasing of contact is the ceasing of perception; this is that Ariyan Eightfold Path going to the ceasing of perception, to wit - right view, right understanding, ..., and right concentration". (27)

( "KatamÓ ca, bhikkhave, sannÓ // chayime, bhikkhave, sannÓkÓyÓ // ru¨pasannÓ saddasannÓ gandhasannÓ rasasannÓ photthabbasannÓ dhammasannÓ ayam vuccati sannÓ // PhassasamudayÓ sannÓsamudayo phassanirodhÓ sannÓnirodho // Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo sannÓnirodhagÓminýpatipadÓ//seyyathýdam sammÓditthi // pe // sammÓsamÓdhi // la //vattam tesam natthi pannÓpanÓya//") (28)

From the above quotation, perception aggregate, as Consciousness aggregate, cannot arise without contact. With regard to the operation of Dependent Origination, it may be declared that: without ignorance, without activities, without consciousness, without Name-and-Form, without six - sense spheres, without feeling, without craving, without grasping, or without becoming, perception aggregate cannot arise. Inversely, without perception aggregate, the other aggregates or the twelve elements of Dependent Origination cannot arise. It is similar for the ceasing of perception and the ceasing of others. In other words, there are only conditions making up perceptionand others which exist, but no perception considered as entity exists. In realizing this truth, a person may detach from all aggregates. From that detachment, meaning from the ceasing of attachment or grasping, the operation of perception leading to its ceasing and the ceasing of all troubles will come into existence: this is what is a way of life of experience, but not of reasons, about which people must not ask why, as they must not ask why a bird can fly or a fish can swim.

Seeing the above operation means "right view"; thinking of it means "right thought" (or right understanding); striving to abide in that vision means "right action", "right livelyhood", and "right effort"; being mindful of it means "right mindfulness", concentrating one’s thought on it means "right concentration". This is a way of cultivating the "Eightfold Paths" leading to the cessasion of all sufferings.

Operation of Feeling aggregate:

Happiness or suffering is a feeling which belongs to Feeling aggregate. So, any operation of any aggregate or element of Dependent Origination leading to the arising of suffering means the operation leading to the arising of Feeling aggregate; any operation leading to the ceasing of Feeling aggregate, any operation leading to the ceasing of suffering means the operation leading to the ceasing of Feeling aggregate.

Lord Buddha taught:

" And what, brethren, is feeling? It is these six seats of feeling: feeling that is born of contactwith eye, feeling that is born of contact with ear, born of contact with nose, with tongue, with body, and with mind. That, brethren, is called feeling. Owing to the arising of contact there is arising of feeling - owing to the ceasing of contact, there is ceasing of feeling. This is that Eightfold Ariyan Path going to the ceasing of feeling, to wit: right view, right understanding, ..., right concentration." (29)

( "KatamÓ ca, bhikkhave, vedanÓ // Chayime, bhikkhave,vedanÓkÓyÓ//cakkhusamphassajÓ vedanÓ // sotasamphassajÓ vedanÓ // ghÓnasamphassajÓ // manosamphassajÓ ... // ayam vuccati bhikkhave, vedanÓ //

PhassasamudayÓ vedanÓsamudayo phassanirodhÓ vedanÓnirodho // Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo vedanÓnirodhagaminý patipÓdÓ // seyyathýdam sammÓditthi // pe // sammÓsamÓdhi //") (30)

It is quite evident that the satisfaction of feeling makes arise desire in a person’s mind and the person follow after pleasures from things. Without feeling, his desire becomes groundless and ceases to exist. If desire ceases, grasping comes to cease and suffering is not present. This is the ceasing of ignorance, of activities, of consciousness, of Name-and-Form, ..., and of becoming. So, the ceasing and arising of feeling are the very ceasing and arising of other aggregates or elements of Dependent Origination. In other words, the operation of feeling really is the operation of ignorance (avijjÓ), and the existence of feeling is but the existence of ignorance or of self - thought. If a person, through the practice of insight (vipassanÓ) realizes this operation, he will surely search for wisdom instead of the satisfaction of feeling. If not, he will be drowned in his feelings. With that wisdom, he will be happy living with what he is and what he has in the here - and - now without worries, and will open a new course of operation of mind to the destruction of feeling aggregate

Operation of Body aggregate:

Body aggregate is physical or material. People often have a feeling that it is not difficult to understand it, but in fact, it really is, because they can understand it only when they understand the operation of the five aggregates or of the twelve elements of Dependent Origination.

Lord Buddha said:

" And what, brethren, is body? - It is the four great elements. That, brethren, is called body.

From the arising of food is the arising of body, from the ceasing of food is the ceasing of body. And the way going to the ceasing of body is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, to wit: right view, right understanding, ..., right concentration." (31)

(" Katamanca, bhikkhave, ru¨pam // CattÓro ca mahÓbhu¨tÓ catunnam ca mahÓbhu¨tÓnam upÓdÓya ru¨pam idam vuccati, bhikkhave, ru¨pam // └hÓrasamudayÓ ru¨pasamudayo // ÓhÓranirodhÓ ru¨panirodho // Ayam eva ariyo atthangiko maggo ru¨panirodhagÓminý patipadÓ // seyyathýdam sammÓditthi // la // sammÓsamÓdhi //".) (32)

Body aggregate is a physical body of a person which is a compound of the four great elements (water, fire, earth, and air). It is brought up by food. If food ceases, body ceases to exist. But food is not an entity, it is conditioned by the presence of the Earth, the Sun, etc. , this means by the whole physical world which says the existence of body is the existence of this whole world. According to Dependent Origination, this whole world is the meaning of becoming (bhava or tibhava) element which is conditioned by the operation of ignorance, of activities, of consciousness, etc. So, the arising and the ceasing of body aggregate is the arising and the ceasing of each aggregate or each element of Dependent Origination. And, as mentioned in "operation of feeling aggregate" above, the way of life to the ceasing of body is Eightfold Noble Path, in which "right view" and "right thought" may be known as a person’s regard of wisdom to things: for example, if the thirty two parts of body are observed, regarded closely again and again, as mentioned in (III.2.1.), they will be found empty. Because of that regard, the person comes to disgust at the body; owing to this disgust, he detaches from it. This is an operation of body controlled by wisdom which leads to the destruction of troubles.

In short, from Lord Buddha’s way of analysing the five aggregates, as well as Dependent Origination, and from the operation of the five aggregates and ignorance element the author has described, emerges the centralpoint of Lord Buddha’s teaching which is the emphasis on showing the truth of human beings’ suffering and the way to come out of it in introducing the truth of man and the world. This point is going to be separately mentioned.

III.2.3: THE FIVE AGGREGATES AND THE PROBLEM OF SUFFERING AND HAPPINESS

The first words Lord Buddha declared in His first Discourse at the Deer Park (Migadaya) are: "Life is nothing but suffering" and "The five aggregates are suffering". How important are they ! These words were repeated several times by Him and His disciples during fourty five years of His preaching Dhamma. Once, at SaÓvatthi, He said:

" I will teach you, brethren, pain and the root of pain. Do you listen to it. And what, brethren, is pain? Body, brethren, is pain: feeling is pain: perception..., the activities ..., consciousness is pain. That, brethren, is the meaning of pain.

And what, brethren, is the root of pain? It is this craving that leads downward to rebirth, along with the lure and the lust, that lingers longingly now here now there: namely, the craving for sense, the craving for rebirth, the craving to have done with rebirth". (33)

("Aghan ca, bhikkhave, desissÓmi aghamu°lanca // tam sunÓtha//. Katamanca, bhikkhave, agham // Ru¨pam bhikkhave, agham // vedanÓ agham // sannÓ... // sankhÓrÓ ... // vinnÓnam agham // Idam vuccati, bhikkhave, agham // Katamanca, bhikkhave, aghamu¨lam // YÓyam tanhÓponobbhavikÓ nandirÓgasahagatÓ tatra tatrÓbhinandiný // seyyathýdam KÓmatanhÓ bhavatanhÓ vibhavatanhÓ // Idam vuccati, bhikkhave, aghamu¨lan ti //"). (34)

The above teaching is Lord Buddha’s typical words on the suffering of human beings which is the result of the arising of Dependent Origination, also of the arising of the Five aggregates discovered by Him. This is a great discovery having brought Him to the position of the World - Honoured One. So, the true meaning of the search for truth of man is the very meaning of the search for the truth of suffering of life called the Noble truth of suffering. With regard to this truth, it is not the five aggreates - or human beings and the world - that cause suffering, but a person’s craving for the five aggregates that causes suffering. Now, the root meaning of the search for truth of man and life turns to the meaning of examining human beings’ craving for things. This is the meaning of the operation of craving element and of Activities aggregate the writer has discussed in (II.1.3.) and in (III.2.2.), and this is the very operation of Ignorance element (avijjÓ) of Dependent Origination.

Ignorance means a person’s wrong view and thought supposing that every existing thing has its own self (or soul), as explained in (II.1.3.) and (II.2.4.); it also means self - thought of a man. Therefore, studying self - thought is the main task of studying suffering and happiness of men, and of the search for truth of man and the world.

It is self - thought which makes up the essence andvalue of things and causes grasping leading to troubles as Lord Buddha explained:

" And how, brethren, is there grasping and worry? Herein, brethren, the untaught many - folk, who discern not those who are Ariyans, who are unskilled in the Ariyan doctrine, untrained in the Ariyan doctrine, ..., these regard body as the self, the self as having body, body as being in the self, the self as being in the body. Of such an one the body alters and becomes ortherwise. Owing to the altering and otherwiseness of the body, his consciousness is busied with the altering body. From this being busied with the altering body, worried thoughts arise and persist, laying hold of the heart. From this laying hold of the heart he becomes troubled, and owing to vexation and clinging he is worried.

So also with perception, feeling, the activities and consciousness. Thus, brethren, comes grasping and worry". (35)

("Katham ca, bhikkhave, upÓdÓ - paripassana hoti // Idha, bhikkhave, assutavÓ puthujjano ariyÓnam adassÓvý ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinýto sappurisÓnam adassÓvi sapprisa - dhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinýto ru°pam attato sumanupassati // ru°pavantam vÓ attÓnam // Tassa tam ru°pam ru°pasmim vÓ attÓnam // Tassa tam ru°pam viparinamati annathÓ hoti // tassaru°paviparinÓmannathÓbhÓvÓ ru°paviparinÓm-Ónuparivatti vinnathÓbhÓvÓ hoti // tassa ru°paviparinÓmÓnuparivattajÓ paritassanÓ dhammasamuppÓdÓ cittam pariyÓdÓyÓ titthanti // cetaso pariyÓdÓna uttÓsavÓ ca hoti vighÓtavÓ ca apekhavÓ ca upÓdÓya ca paritassati // Vedanam attato samanussapati...

Sannam // pe // sankhÓre // pe // VinnÓnam... //

Evam kho, bhikkhave, upÓdÓparitassanÓ hoti //") (36)

The fountain-head of grasping and worry (or suffering) is therefore the regard of self-thought of a person. Grasping and suffering do not come from outside, but from the very regard to things of man which may be completely controled by an individual, and so happiness of man may also come from that regard. In the next paragraph of the Discourse quoted above, Lord Buddha affirmed: if a person regards no body, or no feeling, or no perception, or no activities as the self, ..., when the five aggregates alter and become otherwise, worried thoughts do not arise in his heart, and he does not come to grasp or worry about anything. Without grasping and worrying, he feels free and happy in the here - and - now. Such is the true way to happiness which really lies in oneself and in the very regard to things of a person. This regard is nothing other than "right view" factor of the Eightfold Noble Path which is the most important factor of the Buddhist way to the Noble Truth and Bliss, NibbÓna. It is the seeing things as selflessness. The regard which sees the impermanence and suffering of things will also bring men the same result of freedom and happiness as the following teaching shows:

"Body, brethren, is impermanent. Feeling... Perception, Activities... Consciousness...

So seeing, brethren, the well - taught Ariyan disciple to repelled by body, is repelled by feeling by perception; by the activities, by consciousness. Being repelled by it he lusts not for it: not lusting he is set free; in this freedom comes insight that it is a being free. Thus he realizes; "Rebirth is destroyed, lived is the righteous life, done is my task, for life in these conditions there is no here after". (37)

("Ru¨pam, bhikkhave, aniccam // vedanÓ... // sanna... // sankhÓrÓ... Vinnanam aniccam // Evam passam, bhikkhave, sutavÓ ariyasÓvako rupasmim pi nibbindati // sankhÓresu pi nibbindati // vinnanasmim pi nibbindati // nibbindam virajjati virÓgÓ vimuccati vimuttasmim vimuttam iti nanam hoti // khinÓjÓti vusitam brahmacariyam katam karÓnýyam nÓparam itthattÓyÓti pajÓnÓtýti //") (38)

The above mentioned regard seeing selflessness, impermanence and suffering of the five aggregates is called the regard seeing the "Three Marks of Existence". This is the source of true happiness that can be tested and experienced by a worldly man in this life as declared by Lord Buddha:

" All forms are selfless" he who knows and sees this truth becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity". (39) (Dhp. 279)

("Sabbe dhammÓ anattÓ" ti yadÓ pannÓya passati, Atha nibbidanti dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyÓ") (40)

" All created things perish" he who knows and sees this truth becomes passive in pain; this is the way to purity". (41) (Dhp. 277)

("Sabbe sankhÓrÓ aniccÓ" ti yadÓ pannÓya passati, Atha nibbidanti dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyÓ") (42)

" All created things are grief and pain" he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain: this is the way to purity". (43) (Dhp. 278)

("Sabbe sankhÓrÓ dukkhÓ" ti yadÓ pannÓya passati, Atha nibbidanti dukkhe, esa maggo visuddhiyÓ" ) (44)

Here, the truth of suffering and happiness and the problem of the Way to the Noble truth and happiness appear very simple, but human beings’ way of thinking and feeling is too complicated to accept them, then comes to doubt about them. In the deep of a person’s mind, there is a thought that without desires, especially sensual and sexual desires, his life becomes empty and meaningless. In the deep of a person’s heart (or feeling), there exists a feeling considering his Self his desires: If his desires are destroyed, his self has no condition to survive. These twothings hinder his mind from seeing and accepting the truth discussed above. These are the reasons why Lord Buddha hesitated before He turned "the Wheel of Dhamma", and are the reasons requiring modern systems of education to play wonderfully their role in educating men to make a choice between lasting suffering and true happiness, or between taking up the burden and laying down the burden as Lord Buddha taught:

"The burden is indeed the fivefold mass:
The seizer of the burden, man:
Taking it up is sorrow in this world:
The laying of it down is bliss.

If a man lay this heavy burden down,
And take not any other burden up:
If he draws out that craving, root of all,
No more an - hungered, he is free". (45)

("BhÓrÓ have pancakkhandhÓ //
bhÓrahÓro ca puggalo //
bhÓrÓdÓnam dukkham loke //
bhÓranikkhepanam sukham //

NikkhipitvÓ garum bhÓram //
annam bhÓram ÓnÓdýya //
samu¨lam tanham abbhuyha //
nicchÓto parinibbuto ti //"). (46)

People should lay down the burden, or deal with craving for the five aggregates, of course, because of these two reasons:

(1) Because of seeing the dangers caused by the desire for the satisfaction of the five aggregates, such as sorrow, grief; woe, lamentation and despair.

(2) Because of seeing the profit gained from the restraining of craving for the five aggregates, such as a peaceful mind coming from the absence of sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation and despair, regardless of the change of things.

This is a very practical, existential and wise choice to be made. Otherwise, human beings are but shadows staggering in life without hope for peace.

However, when people go on their ways of dealing with craving and grasping, they must surely face to difficulties arising from their sensual, sexual desire, desire for existence and desire for non - existence, then lots of doubts will arise in them and question: what will happen to them on a desireless way of life so quiet? How can they leave their intimate desires for sensuality, sexuality, existence and non-existence for unknown states of mind that seem to be so tasteless to them? etc- These are very rough questions that have made people flinch in thinking of the way to come out of them. The author with his determination will come to search for their solutions in the next part with a belief that true values will be explored somehow.

REFERENCES:

(1) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III, PTS, Oxford, 1992, pp. 59-60. Also see TheragÓthÓ, No. 69.
(2) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1975, pp. 66-68.
(3) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III, PTS, London,..., pp. 41-42.
(4) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,...,pp. 47-48.
(5) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,...,pp. 21.
(6) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,...,pp. 22.
(7) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 23.
(8) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 24.
(9) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 119-120.
(10) : Samyutta-NikÓya, Vol. III,..., pp. 140-141.
(11) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 113-114.
(12) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., pp. 134-135.
(13) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 101.
(14) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,... pp. 119.
(15) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 26.
(16) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,... p. 26.
(17) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., pp. 45-46.
(18) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,... pp. 53-54.
(19) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 56.
(20) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,... pp. 63-64.
(21) : "Greater Discourse on the Way of Undertaking Dhamma", Middle Length Sayings, Vol. I, PTS, London, 1987, p. 375.
(22) : MahÓdhammasamÓdÓna - Sutta", Majjhima NikÓya, PTS, London, 1979, p. 313.
(23) : Gradual Sayings, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1988, p. 53.
(24) : Anguttara - Nikaya, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1958, p. 65.
(25) : Gradual Sayings,Vol. I, PTS, London, 1989, p. 85.
(26) : Anguttara-NikÓya, Vol. I, PTS, London, 1961, p. 100.
(27) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1992, p. 52.
(28) : Samyutta- NikÓya, Vol. III, PTS, London, 1975,p. 60.
(29) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 52.
(30) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 59-60.
(31) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 51.
(32) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 59.
(33) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 31.
(34) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 32.
(35) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 16-17.
(36) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 16.
(37) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 20.
(38) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 21.
(39) : Dhammapada, Verse 279, tr. by F. Max Muller, Sacred Books of the East.
(40) : Dhammapada, Verse279, DevanÓgari,.., 1977.
(41) : Dhammapada, Verse 277, tr. by F. Max Muller,..
(42) : Dhammapada, Verse 277, DevanÓgari,...
(43) : Dhammapada, Verse 278,...
(44) : Dhammapada, Verse 278, DevanÓgari,...
(45) : Kindred Sayings, Vol. III,..., p. 25.
(46) : Samyutta - NikÓya, Vol. III,..., p. 26.


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