Pali Primer Exercise 16
Translate into English:
1. Bhūpālā dhammena dīpaṃ pālentu.
kings / righteously / island /
May kings rule the island righteously.
2. Mā manusso bhāyatu, sace so saccaṃ jānāti, bhāsatu.
do not / man / let…fear / if /
he / truth / knows / may…speak
Let the man not fear, if he knows the truth, may (he) speak.
3. Tumhe pāpaṃ karonte putte ovadatha.
you / evil / doing / sons /
You, admonish the sons doing evil.
4. Sugato dhammaṃ desetu, sāvakā ca upāsakā ca vihārasmiṃ nisīdanti.
Buddha / dhamma / may…preach /
disciples and / lay devotees and / in monastery / sit
May the Buddha preach the dhamma, the disciples and lay devotees are
sitting in the monastery.
5. Mā te pāpakammāni katvā manussalokamhā cavitvā narake (in
do not / they / evil deeds /
having committed / from human world / having departed / in purgatory /
May they not commit evil deeds and be born in purgatory after departing
from the human world.
6. Mā corā kassakānaṃ goṇe mārentu.
do not / robbers / farmers' /
oxen / may…kill
May the robbers not kill the farmers' oxen.
7. Mā tvaṃ sunakhaṃ āmasāhi, so taṃ (you) ḍaseyya.
do not / you / dog / touch! /
it / you / would bite
You, do not touch the dog, it will bite you.
8. Tumhe dīpe jāletvā vihārasmiṃ rūpāni oloketha.
you / lamps / light! / in
monastery / murals / look!
You, light the lamps and look at the murals in the monastery.
9. Tumhe asappurise āmantetvā dhammena jīvituṃ anusāsatha.
you / wicked men / having
addressed / righteously / to live / admonish!
You address the wicked men and admonish (them) to live righteously.
10. Putta, mā tvaṃ pāpamitte upasa'nkama.
son / do not / you / evil
friends / approach!
Son, do not approach evil friends.
11. Sace tumhe saccaṃ bhāsituṃ ussaheyyātha, tumhe sappurisā
if / you / truth / to speak /
would try / you / good men / will become
If you try to speak the truth, you will become good men.
12. Sace tvaṃ pāsāṇe khipeyyāsi, kākā ca sakuṇā ca ākāsaṃ uppateyyuṃ.
if / you / stones / would throw
/ crows and / birds and / [into] sky / would fly
If you throw stones, the crows and birds will fly into the sky.
13. Mā dāraka pānīyaṃ pivitvā pattaṃ bhinda.
do not / child / drinking water
/ having drunk / bowl / break!
Child, do not break the bowl after drinking water.
14. Mā suvaṇṇaṃ coretvā gacchantā corā samuddaṃ tarantu.
do not / gold / having stolen /
going / robbers / sea / let…cross
Let the robbers who are going after stealing gold not cross the sea.
15. Upāsaka, mā putte akkosāji, samaṇehi saddhiṃ mantetvā putte
lay devotee / do not / sons /
scold / with monks / having discussed / sons / admonish!
Lay devotee, do not scold (your) sons, admonish (your) sons after
discussing with the monks.
Translate into Pali:
1. May the king ruling the island protect the people righteously.
bhūpālo / pālento / dīpaṃ /
rakkhatu / purise / dhammena
Dīpaṃ pālento bhūpālo dhammena purise rakkhatu.
2. Let the children playing in the park collect falling leaves.
dārakā / kīḷantā / uyyāne /
ocinantu / patantāni / paṇṇāni
Uyyāne kīḷantā dārakā patantāni paṇṇāni ocinantu.
3. Let the farmers and merchants assemble in the king's park.
kassakā ca / vāṇijā ca /
sannipatantu / bhūpālassa / uyyānasmiṃ
Kassakā ca vāṇijā ca bhūpālassa uyyānasmiṃ sannipatantu.
4. Let the sons climb the mountain to see lions, deer and birds.
puttā / āruhantu / pabbataṃ /
passituṃ / sīhe ca / mige ca / sakuṇe ca
Puttā sīhe ca mige ca sakuṇe ca passituṃ pabbataṃ āruhantu.
5. Do not cut trees in forests if you wish to protect deer.
mā chināhi / rukkhe / araññesu
/ sace / tvaṃ / iccha / rakkhituṃ / mige
Sace tvaṃ mige rakkhituṃ iccha mā araññesu rukkhe chināhi.
6. Let the child not come down the stairway, he will fall.
dārako / mā oruhatu / sopānamhā
/ so / patissati
Mā dārako sopānamhā oruhatu, so patissati.
7. Let the farmer plough the fields and sow seeds, let him not kill
kassako / kasitvā / khettāni /
vapatu / bījāni / so / mā hanatu / aje
Kassako khettāni kasitvā bījāni vapatu, mā so aje hanatu.
8. Let the parrots fly taking fruits with their beaks.
suvā / uppatantu / gahetvā /
phalāni / tuṇḍehi
Tuṇḍehi phalāni gahetvā suvā uppatantu.
9. Sons, do not commit sins, live righteously.
puttā / mā karotha / pāpaṃ /
jīvatha / dhammena
Puttā, mā tumhe pāpaṃ karotha, dhammena jīvatha.
10. May the disciples of the Buddha get alms and robes.
sāvakā / Buddhassa / labhantu /
dānāni ca / cīvarāni ca
Buddhassa sāvakā dānāni ca cīvarāni ca labhantu.
11. Let the children come out of the house and see the moon rising
from the mountain.
dārakā / nikkhamma / gehasmā /
passantu / candaṃ / udentaṃ / pabbatamhā
Gehasmā nikkhamma dārakā pabbatamhā udentaṃ candaṃ passantu.
12. Boys, do not go and kill deer in the forest with the hunter.
kumārā / mā / gantvā / māretha
/ mige / araññe / luddakena saha
Kumārā, mā (tumhe) luddakena saha gantvā araññe mige māretha.
13. You (pl.) run home and bring water for the farmers ploughing the
tumhe / dhāvitvā / gehaṃ /
āharatha / pānīyaṃ / kassakānaṃ / kasantānaṃ / khettaṃ
Gehaṃ dhāvitvā tumhe khettaṃ kasantānaṃ kassakānaṃ pānīyaṃ āharatha.
14. Do not ask questions from the king's messenger.
mā / puccha / pañhe /
bhūpālassa / dūtasmā
Mā bhūpālassa dūtasmā pañhe puccha.
15. You lay devotees should try to avoid evil and do good deeds.
tumhe / upāsakā / ussahatha /
parivajjetvā / akusalaṃ / katuṃ / kusalakammāni
Tumhe upāsakā akusalaṃ parivajjetvā kusalakammāni katuṃ ussahatha.
Pali Primer Exercise 17
Translate into English:
1. Kassako khettaṃ kasitvā nahāyituṃ udakaṃ otari.
farmer / field / having
ploughed / to bathe / water / entered
After ploughing the field, the farmer entered the water to bathe.
2. Uggaṇhantānaṃ dārakānaṃ dātuṃ ācariyā kusumāni āhariṃsu.
learning / to children / to
give / teachers / flowers / brought
The teachers brought flowers to give to the learning children
3. Upāsakā āsanehi uṭṭhahitvā dhammaṃ desetuṃ upasa'nkamantaṃ samaṇaṃ
lay devotees / from seats /
having got up / dhamma / to preach / approaching / to monk / paid
The lay devotees rose from (their) seats and paid respect to the monk
approaching to preach the dhamma.
4. Nagaresu kammāni katvā vetane labhituṃ āka'nkhamānā narā gāmehi
in cities / deeds / having done
/ wages / to receive / hoping / people / from villages / left
Hoping to do work in the cities and receive pay, the people left the
5. Ācariyo āsanaṃ dussena chādetvā samaṇaṃ nisīdituṃ nimantesi.
teacher / seat / with cloth /
having covered / monk / to sit / invited
Having covered the seat with a cloth, the teacher invited the monk to
6. Kumāro dvāraṃ vivaritvā rukkhamhā oruhante vānare passamāno
boy / door / having opened /
from trees / descending / monkeys / seeing / stood
The boy opened the door and stood watching monkeys climbing down from
7. Paṇḍito goṇe coretvā akusalaṃ karonte nare pakkositvā ovadi.
wise man / oxen / having stolen
/ evil / doing / men / having summoned / admonished
The wise man called and admonished the men stealing the oxen and doing
Alt: The wise man summoned and advised people who commit evil by
8. Yācakassa puttā rukkhehi patantāni phalāni saṃharitvā āpaṇasmiṃ
beggar's / sons / from trees /
falling / fruits / having collected / at market / sold
The beggar's sons collected fruits falling from trees and sold (them) at
9. Kassako dhaññaṃ minitvā vāṇijassa vikkiṇituṃ pahiṇi.
farmer / grain / having
measured / to merchant / to sell / sent
The farmer, having weighed the grain, sent (it) to sell to the merchant.
10. Dhammaṃ uggaṇhitvā samaṇo bhavituṃ āka'nkhamāno amacco ācariyaṃ
pariyesamāno Buddhaṃ upasa'nkami.
dhamma / having learnt / monk /
to become / wishing / minister / teacher / seeking / Buddha / approached
Wishing to learn the dhamma and become a monk, the minister seeking a
teacher approached the Buddha.
11. Sace tumhe gāmaṃ pāpuṇeyyātha mitte olokeyyātha.
if / you / village / would
reach / friends / would see
If you reach the village, you would see friends.
12. Paṇḍitamhā pañhe pucchitvā saccaṃ jānituṃ mātulo ussahi.
from wise man / questions /
having asked / truth / to know / uncle / tried
The uncle tried to ask questions from the wise man and find out the
13. Pāsāṇamhi ṭhatvā ajaṃ khādantaṃ sīhaṃ disvā vānarā bhāyiṃsu.
on rock / having stood / goat /
eating / lion / having seen / monkeys / got frightened
Having seen the lion standing on the rock and eating a goat, the monkeys
14. Rukkhamūle nisīditvā gitāni gāyantānaṃ kumārānaṃ kāyesu paṇṇāni
ca pupphāni ca patiṃsu.
under a tree / having seated /
songs / singing / boys' / on bodies / leaves and / flowers and / fell
Leaves and flowers fell on the bodies of the boys sitting under a tree
and singing songs.
15. Tumhe dhanaṃ saṃharamānā mā samuddaṃ taritvā dīpaṃ gacchatha.
you / wealth / collecting / do
not / sea / having crossed / island / go!
(You) Do not cross the sea and go to the island collecting wealth.
16. Āpaṇasmiṃ bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantassa vāṇijassa ratho atthi.
at shop / goods / selling /
merchant's / chariot / it is
It is the chariot of the merchant selling goods at the shop.
Alt: The merchant who sells goods at the shop has a vehicle.
17. Ahaṃ puttassa dātuṃ dussaṃ sibbanto gītaṃ gāyiṃ.
I / to son / to give / clothes
/ sewing / song / sang
Sewing a piece of clothes to give my son, I sang a song.
18. Sūkarā ca sunakhā ca khette āvāṭe khaṇiṃsu.
pigs and / dogs and / in field
/ pits / dug
The pigs and dogs dug pits in the field.
19. Purisā rukkhamūle nisīditvā tāpasena bhāsamānaṃ suṇiṃsu.
people / at foot of tree /
having seated / by ascetic / speech / listened
The people sat at the foot of the tree and listened to the speech by the
20. Luddakena saddhiṃ vane āhiṇḍante putte āmantetvā kassakā
with hunter / in forest /
wandering / sons / having called / farmer / scolded
Having called the sons wandering in the forest with the hunter, the
farmer scolded (them).
21. Mā tvaṃ suvaṇṇapattaṃ vikkiṇitvā khagge kiṇāhi.
do not / you / golden bowl /
having sold / swords / buy!
(You) Do not sell the golden bowl and buy swords.
22. So bhaṇḍāni ca khettaṃ ca goṇe ca puttānaṃ datvā gehaṃ pahāya
samaṇo bhavituṃ cintesi.
he / (household) articles and /
field and / cattle and / to sons / having given / house / having left /
monk / to be / intended
Having given (household) articles, the field and the cattle to (his)
sons, he intended to leave the household and become a monk.
23. Dhammena jīvantā sappurisā mige na māresuṃ.
righteously / living / good men
/ not / killed
Living righteously, the good men did not kill deer.
24. Ahaṃ sopānaṃ āruhiṃ, te sopānamhā oruhiṃsu.
I / stairs / climbed / they /
from stairs / descended
I climbed the stairs, they came down the stairs.
25. Sahāyakā udakaṃ otaritvā nahāyantā padumāni ociniṃsu.
friends / [into] water / having
descended / bathing / lotuses / picked
Having descended into the water and bathing, the friends picked lotuses.
Translate into Pali:
1. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha
dārako / āsiñcitvā / padumāni /
udakena / pūjesi / Buddhaṃ / tehi
Dārako udakena padumāni āsiñcitvā tehi Buddhaṃ pūjesi.
2. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought
labhitvā / vetanaṃ / narā /
gantvā / āpaṇaṃ / kiṇiṃsu / bhaṇḍāni
Vetanaṃ labhitvā narā āpaṇaṃ gantvā bhaṇḍāni kiṇiṃsu.
3. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the
dhīvaro / āharitvā / macche /
samuddasmā / vikkiṇi / kassakānaṃ
Dhīvaro samuddasmā macche āharitvā kassakānaṃ vikkiṇi.
4. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children.
sace / tvaṃ / gaccheyyāsi /
nahāyituṃ / dhovāhi / dussāni / dārakānaṃ
Sace tvaṃ nahāyituṃ gaccheyyāsi dārakānaṃ dussāni dhovāhi.
5. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees.
sukā ca / kākā ca / uḍḍesuṃ /
ākāsaṃ / rukkhehi
Sukā ca kākā ca rukkhehi ākāsaṃ uḍḍesuṃ.
6. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog.
mā / akkosāhi / dārake /
kīḷante / rukkhamūle / kukkurena saddhiṃ
Mā rukkhamūle kukkurena saddhiṃ kīḷante dārake akkosāhi.
7. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see
ahaṃ / kathesiṃ / manussānaṃ /
nisīdantānaṃ / uyyānamhi / sannipatitvā / passituṃ / bhūpālaṃ
Ahaṃ bhūpālaṃ passituṃ sannipatitvā uyyānamhi nisīdantānaṃ manussānaṃ
8. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house.
mayaṃ / bhāyimha / disvā /
sappaṃ / pavisantaṃ / gehaṃ
Mayaṃ gehaṃ pavisantaṃ sappaṃ disvā bhāyimha.
9. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend.
ahaṃ / adāsiṃ/adadiṃ / pānīyaṃ
/ puttāya / bhuñjantāya / bhattaṃ / mittena saha
Ahaṃ bhattaṃ bhuñjantāya mittena saha puttāya pānīyaṃ adāsiṃ/adadiṃ.
10. Do not do evil, do good to enter heaven after departing from the
mā / karotha / pāpāni / karotha
/ kusalāni / pavisituṃ / saggaṃ / cavitvā / manussalokāmhā
Mā pāpāni karotha; manussalokāmhā cavitvā saggaṃ pavisituṃ kusalāni
Pali Primer Exercise 18
Translate into English:
1. Sace sabhāyaṃ kaññāyo katheyyuṃ ahaṃ pi kathessāmi.
if / in assembly / girls /
would speak / I / too / will speak
If the girls speak in the assembly, I will speak too.
2. Dārikāyo pupphāni ocinitvā sālāyaṃ nisīditvā mālāyo kariṃsu.
girls / flowers / having
collected / in hall / having seated / garlands / made
Having collected flowers, the girls sat in the hall and made garlands.
3. Vanitā rukkhassa sākhāyo chinditvā ākaḍḍhi.
woman / tree's / branches /
having cut / dragged
The woman cut and dragged the branches of the tree.
4. Bhariyā mañjūsāsu vatthāni ca suvaṇṇaṃ ca ṭhapesi.
wife / in boxes / clothes and /
gold and / kept
The wife kept clothes and gold in the boxes.
5. Dārikā pāsādassa chāyāyaṃ nisīditvā vālukāya kīḷiṃsu.
girls / palace's / in shadow /
having seated / with sand / played
The girls sat in the shadow of the palace and played with sand.
6. Bhariyāya kathaṃ sutvā pasīditvā kassako sappuriso abhavi.
wife's / speech / having heard
/ having being pleased / farmer / good man / became
Having heard (his) wife's speech and was glad, the farmer became a good
Alt: Being pleased hearing the talk of the wife, the farmer became a
7. Devatāyo puññāni karonte dhammena jīvante manusse rakkhantu.
deities / meritorious deeds /
doing / righteously / living / people / may…protect
May the deities protect the people who live righteously doing
8. Pabbatasmiṃ guhāsu vasantā sīhā vālukāya kīḷante mige māresuṃ.
in mountain / in caves / living
/ lions / on sand / playing / deer / killed
The lions living in the caves in the mountain killed the deer playing on
9. Ammā dārikāya kujjhitvā hatthena pahari.
mother / with girl / having got
angry / with hand / hit
The mother got angry with the girl and hit her with her hand.
10. Vanitāyo saddhāya bhattaṃ pacitvā vihāraṃ netvā samaṇānaṃ
women / with devotion / rice /
having cooked / (to) monastery / having taken / to monks / offered
With devotion, the women cooked the rice, took (it) to the monastery and
offered to the monks.
11. Tumhe mā suraṃ pivatha, mā gilānā (sick) bhavituṃ ussahatha.
you / do not / liquor / drink!
/ do not / sick / to be / try!
You, do not drink liquor, do not try to fall ill!
12. Dhammena dhanaṃ saṃharamānā paññāya putte posentā narā
manussaloke sukhaṃ vindanti.
righteously / wealth /
collecting / with wisdom / sons / nurturing / people / in human world /
happiness / experience
Lit: Collecting wealth righteously and bringing up sons with wisdom,
people experience joy in the world.
People who collect wealth by fair means and nurture children with wisdom
enjoy happiness in the human world.
13. Sace tumhe nāvāya ga'ngaṃ tareyyātha dīpasmiṃ vasante tāpase
disvā āgantuṃ sakkissatha.
if / you / by boat / Ganges /
would cross / on island / living / hermits / having seen / to come /
will be able
If you cross Ganges by boat, you will be able to come after seeing
hermits living on the island.
14. Parisaṃ parivāretvā pāsādamhā nikkhamantaṃ bhūpālaṃ disvā
[by] retinue / having [being]
accompanied / from palace / leaving / king / having seen / women / are
The women are happy seeing the king leaving the palace accompanied by
15. Kaññāyo sālāyaṃ sannipatitvā kumārehi saddhiṃ sallapiṃsu.
girls / in hall / having
assembled / with boys / engaged in conversation
The girls assembled in the hall and chatted with the boys.
16. Khudāya pīḷentaṃ gilānaṃ yācakaṃ disvā ammā bhattaṃ adadi/adāsi.
by hunger / oppressing / sick
man / beggar / having seen / mother / rice / gave
Having seen the sick beggar oppressed with hunger, mother gave (him)
17. Guhāyaṃ nilīyitvā suraṃ pivantā corā sīhaṃ passitvā bhāyiṃsu.
in cave / having hid / liquor /
drinking / robbers / lion / having seen / were fightened
Hiding in the cave and drinking liquor, the robbers saw the lion and
Alt: Robbers drinking liquor hiding in the cave were frightened on
seeing a lion.
18. Varāhe māretvā jīvanto naro gilāno hutvā dukkhaṃ vindati.
pigs / having killed / living /
man / sick man / having become / suffering / experiences
The man, who lives on killing pigs, becomes sick and experiences
19. Vāṇijassa āpaṇe mañjūsāyaṃ mūlaṃ (money) atthi.
merchant's / at shop / in box /
money / there is
There is money in the box at the merchant's shop.
20. Samaṇā manusse pāpā nivāretvā sappurise kātuṃ vāyamanti.
monks / people / from evil /
having prevented / good men / to make / try
The monks try to make people good by preventing (them) from evil.
Translate into Pali:
1. The man stood on the road asking (from) my mother the way to go to
naro / aṭṭhāsi / magge /
pucchanto / ammāya / maggaṃ / gantuṃ / vihāraṃ
Vihāraṃ gantuṃ maggaṃ ammāya pucchanto naro magge aṭṭhāsi.
2. Having prepared rice with faith for the monks, the woman took it
to the monastery.
paṭiyādetvā / odanaṃ / saddhāya
/ samaṇānaṃ / vanitā / nesi / vihāraṃ
Saddhāya samaṇānaṃ odanaṃ paṭiyādetvā vanitā vihāraṃ nesi.
3. You can live righteously and seek wealth.
tvaṃ / sakkosi / jīvanto /
dhammena / pariyesituṃ / dhanaṃ
Tvaṃ dhammena jīvanto dhanaṃ pariyesituṃ sakkosi.
4. Sitting in the shade of the house the girls cut branches from the
nisīdantiyo / chāyāyaṃ /
gehassa / kaññāyo / chindiṃsu / sākhāyo / latāya
Gehassa chāyāyaṃ nisīdantiyo kaññāyo latāya sākhāyo chindiṃsu.
5. Wicked men did not advise their sons who drink liquor.
asappurisā / na ovadiṃsu /
putte / pivante / suraṃ
Asappurisā suraṃ pivante putte na ovadiṃsu.
6. Taking the basket and money the girl went to the market to buy
ādāya/gahetvā / piṭakaṃ ca /
mūlaṃ ca / dārikā / agacchi/agami / āpaṇaṃ / kiṇituṃ / dhaññaṃ
Piṭakaṃ ca mūlaṃ ca ādāya/gahetvā dārikā dhaññaṃ kiṇituṃ āpaṇaṃ
7. If you light lamps the lay devotees will see the objects in the
sace / tvaṃ / jāleyyāsi / dīpe
/ upāsakā / passissanti / rūpāni / vihārasmiṃ
Sace tvaṃ dīpe jāleyyāsi upāsakā vihārasmiṃ rūpāni passissanti.
8. O good men, you learn the dhamma and try to live righteously.
sappurisā / tumhe / uggaṇhitvā
/ dhammaṃ / ussahatha / jīvituṃ / dhammena
Sappurisā tumhe dhammaṃ uggaṇhitvā dhammena jīvituṃ ussahatha.
9. If you try, you can avoid evil and do good.
yadi / tumhe / ussaheyyātha /
(tumhe) / sakkotha / parivajjetvā / pāpaṃ / kātuṃ / puññaṃ
Yadi tumhe ussaheyyātha pāpaṃ parivajjetvā puññaṃ kātuṃ sakkotha.
10. Having seen the lion sleeping in the cave, the woman ran.
disvā / sīhaṃ / sayantaṃ /
guhāyaṃ / vanitā / dhāvi
Guhāyaṃ sayantaṃ sīhaṃ disvā vanitā dhāvi.
Pali Primer Exercise 19
Translate into English:
1. Ammāya mañjūsāyaṃ pakkhittaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ dārikā na gaṇhi.
by/of mother / in box / kept /
gold / girl / did not take
The girl did not take the gold kept in the box by the mother.
The girl did not take the gold kept in the mother's box.
2. Dhotāni vatthāni gahetvā bhariyā udakamhā uttari.
washed / clothes / having taken
/ wife / from water / come out
Having taken the washed clothes the wife stepped out of the water.
Alt: The wife stepped out of the water taking the washed clothes.
3. Kassakehi uyyāne ropitesu rukkhesu phalāni bhaviṃsu.
by farmers / in park / planted
/ on trees / fruits / there were
There were fruits on the trees planted in the park by the farmers.
4. Buddhā devehi ca narehi ca pūjitā honti.
Buddhas / by gods and / by men
and / honoured / are
Buddhas are honoured by gods and men.
5. Udakena pūritaṃ pattaṃ gahetvā vanitā gehaṃ āgatā hoti.
with water / filled / bowl /
having taken / woman / [to] house / come / has
Having taken the bowl filled with water, the woman has come to the
Alt: The woman has come to the house taking/carrying a bowl filled with
6. Adhammena (unrighteously) dīpaṃ pālentena bhūpālena pīḷitā manussā
unrighteously / island / ruling
/ by king / oppressed / people / angry / are
The people oppressed by the king ruling the island unrighteously are
7. Pakkaṃ (ripe) phalaṃ tuṇḍena gahetvā uḍḍentaṃ suvaṃ ahaṃ apassiṃ.
ripe / fruit / with beak /
having taken / flying / parrot / I / saw
I saw a flying parrot taking a ripe fruit in its beak.
8. Udento suriyo brāhmaṇena namassito hoti.
rising / sun / by brahmin /
worshipped / is
The rising sun is worshipped by the brahmin.
9. Ammāya jālitaṃ dīpaṃ ādaya putto vihāraṃ paviṭṭho hoti.
by mother / lighted / lamp /
have taken / son / monastery / entered / has
Having taken the lamp lighted by (his) mother, the son has entered the
Alt: The son has entered the monastery taking/carrying/holding a lamp
lit by (his) mother.
10. Vanitāya dussena chādite āsane samaṇo nisīditvā sannipatitāya
parisāya dhammaṃ desesi.
by woman / with cloth / covered
/ on seat / monk / having seated / assembled / to retinue / dhamma /
Having seated on a seat covered with a cloth by the woman, the monk
preached the dhamma to the assembled
11. Kassakena khettaṃ ānītā goṇā tiṇaṃ khādantā āhiṇḍiṃsu.
by farmer / [to] field /
brought / oxen / grass / eating / roamed
The oxen brought to the field by the farmer roamed (about) eating grass.
12. Vāṇijā mañjūsāsu ṭhapitāni dussāni na vikkiṇiṃsu.
merchants / in boxes / kept /
clothes / did no sell
The merchants did not sell clothes kept in boxes.
13. Sace tvaṃ saccaṃ jāneyyāsi mā puttaṃ akkosa.
if / you / truth / may...know /
do not / son / scold!
If you know the truth, do not reproach (your) son.
14. Nāvāya nikkhantā narā samuddaṃ taritvā dīpaṃ pāpuṇitvā bhariyāhi
saddhiṃ kathentā modanti.
by boat / leaving / people /
sea / having crossed / island / having crossed / with wives / talking /
The people, who left by the boat, crossed the sea and reached the
island, are happy talking with (their) wives.
15. Magge ṭhite vāṇijassa sakaṭe ahaṃ kaññāya ānītāni bhaṇḍāni
on road / stood / merchant's /
in cart / I / by girl / brought / goods / kept
I kept the goods brought by the girl in the merchant's cart stationed on
16. Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetvā jīvantā manussā devatāhi
righteously / received / with
wealth / children / having brought up / living / people / by gods /
protected / are
People who live bringing up (their) children with righteously earned
wealth are protected by gods.
17. Sāvakehi ca upāsakehi ca parivārito Buddho vihārassa chāyāya
by disciples and / by lay
devotees and / accompanied / Buddha / monastery's / shade / seated / is
The Buddha, accompanied by disciples and lay devotees, is seated in the
shade of the monastery.
18. Ammāya pāpehi nivāritā puttā sappurisā hutvā dhammaṃ suṇanti.
by mother / from evil /
prevented / sons / good men / having become / [to] dhamma / listen
The sons who were prevented from evil by the mother become noble men and
listen to the dhamma.
19. Kassake pīḷentā corā paṇḍitena anusāsitā sappurisā bhavituṃ
vāyamantā upāsakehi saddhiṃ uyyāne rukkhe ropenti.
farmers / oppressing / thieves
/ by wise man / admonished / good men / to become / trying / with lay
devotees / in park / trees / plant
Thieves who were oppressing farmers were admonished by the wise man, and
trying to become good men they plant trees in the park with lay
20. Vanitā puttāya paṭiyāditamhā bhattamhā khudāya pīḷitassa
yācakassa thokaṃ (little) datvā pānīyaṃ ca dadi/adāsi.
woman / for son / prepared /
from rice / by hunger / oppressed / to beggar / little / having given /
water / and / gave
The woman gave a little (of) the rice prepared for (her) son to the
starving beggar and gave water (too).
21. Sabhāyaṃ nisīditvā dārikāya gāyituṃ gītaṃ sutvā kaññāyo modiṃsu.
in assembly / having seated /
by girl / to sing / song / having heard / girls / were happy
The girls seated in the assembly were delighted hearing the song sung by
the little girl.
22. Amaccena nimantitā purisā sālāyaṃ nisīdituṃ asakkontā (unable)
by minister / invited / people
/ in hall / to sit / unable / in park / assembled
Being unable to sit in the hall, the people invited by the minister
assembled in the park.
23. Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi bījehi thokaṃ (little) sakuṇā
by farmers / in fields / sown /
seeds / little / birds / ate
The birds ate a little (of) the seeds sown in the fields by the farmers.
24. Kumārehi rukkhamūle nilīyitvā sayanto sappo diṭṭho hoti.
by/from boys / under tree /
having hidden / sleeping / snake / seen / is
The snake is found/seen hiding and sleeping under the tree by the boys.
Alt: The snake is found hiding from the boys and sleeping under the
25. Vāṇijena dīpamhā āhaṭāni vatthāni kiṇituṃ vanitāyo icchanti.
by merchant / from island /
brought / clothes / to buy / women / wish
The women wish to buy the clothes brought by the merchant from the
26. Sace bhūpālo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kammāni katvā dārake
posentā sukhaṃ vindeyyuṃ.
if / king / righteously /
people / protect / they / work / having done / children / bringing up /
happiness / would experience
If the king protects the people by fair means, they would experience
happiness doing work and bringing up (their) children.
27. Puttena yācitā ammā mittānaṃ odanaṃ paṭiyādesi.
by son / begged / mother / for
friends / meal / prepared
Begged by (her) son, the mother prepared a meal for (his) friends.
28. Amaccena puṭṭhaṃ pañhaṃ adhigantuṃ asakkonto corānaṃ dūto
by minister / asked / question
/ to understand / unable / thieves' / messenger / to think / began
The thieves' messenger began to think being unable to understand the
question asked by the minister.
29. Corehi guhāyaṃ nilīyitāni bhaṇḍāni passitvā vānarā tāni (them)
ādāya rukkhe āruhiṃsu.
by thieves / in caves / hidden
/ goods / having seen / monkeys / them / having taken / trees / climbed
Seeing the goods hidden in the caves by the thieves, the monkeys took
them and climbed the trees.
30. Ahaṃ pariyesitaṃ dhammaṃ adhigantvā modāmi.
I / sought for / doctrine/truth
/ having understood / am happy
Having understood the doctrine/truth I sought for, I am happy.
Translate into Pali:
1. The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the
naro / āgato / sabhaṃ / na
sakkosi / kathetuṃ / amaccehi saha
Sabhaṃ āgato naro amaccehi saha kathetuṃ na sakkosi.
2. The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother.
dārako / dhāvi / āpaṇaṃ / ādāya
/ mulaṃ / dinnaṃ / ammāya
Ammāya dinnaṃ mulaṃ ādāya dārako āpaṇaṃ dhāvi.
3. The king is seated in the chariot drawn by the horses.
bhūpālo / hoti / nisinno /
rathe / ākaḍḍhite / assehi
Bhūpālo assehi ākaḍḍhite rathe nisinno hoti.
4. Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to
mantetvā / paṇḍitena saha /
kassakā / pesesuṃ / dūtaṃ / santikaṃ / bhūpālāya
Paṇḍitena saha mantetvā kassakā bhūpālāya santikaṃ dūtaṃ pesesuṃ.
5. The children went out of the open door.
dārakā / nikkhamiṃsu /
vivaṭamhā / dvāramhā
Dārakā vivaṭamhā dvāramhā nikkhamiṃsu.
6. The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed.
vanitāyo / otaritvā / udakamhi
/ dhovitvā / vatthāni / nahāyiṃsu
Udakamhi otaritvā vanitāyo vatthāni dhovitvā nahāyiṃsu.
7. Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men.
Buddhā ca / sāvakā ca / honti /
vanditā / devehi ca / narehi ca
Buddhā ca sāvakā ca devehi ca narehi ca vanditā honti.
8. The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women.
vāṇijo / vikkiṇi / dussāni /
sibbitāni / vanitāhi
Vāṇijo vanitāhi sibbitāni dussāni vikkiṇi.
9. I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the
ahaṃ / na gaṇhiṃ / pupphāni ca
/ phalāni ca / āhaṭāni / kaññāya / araññasmā
Ahaṃ araññasmā kaññāya āhaṭāni pupphāni ca phalāni ca na gaṇhiṃ.
10. Being chased by the dog, the girls quickly (sīghaṃ) ran home.
anubandhitāyo / kukkurena /
dārikāyo / sīghaṃ / dhāviṃsu / gehaṃ
Kukkurena anubandhitāyo dārikāyo sīghaṃ gehaṃ dhāviṃsu.
11. The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised
ācariyo / disvā / pāpakammaṃ /
kataṃ / dārikāya / ovadi / (taṃ)
Dārikāya kataṃ pāpakammaṃ disvā ācariyo ovadi.
12. We did not light the lamps prepared by the women.
mayaṃ / na jālayimha / dīpe /
paṭiyādite / vanitāhi
Vanitāhi paṭiyādite dīpe mayaṃ na jālayimha.
13. You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.
tumhe / mā ākaḍḍhatha / sākhāyo
/ chinnāyo / kassakena / pabbatamhā
Mā tumhe pabbatamhā kassakena chinnāyo sākhāyo ākaḍḍhatha.
14. Without getting the pay for the work done, the woman is angry.
alabhitvā / vetanaṃ / kammassa
/ assa* / vanitā / hoti / kuddhā
Vanitā assa kammassa vetanaṃ alabhitvā kuddhā hoti.
15. Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch.
mā yacāhi / phalāni / kumārasmā
/ nisīdantasmā / sākhāyaṃ
Mā sākhāyaṃ nisīdantasmā kumārasmā phalāni yacāhi.
16. The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries, seated at the
vanitā / akkositā / brāhmaṇena
/ rodati / nisinnā / dvārasmiṃ
Brāhmaṇena akkositā dvārasmiṃ nisinnā vanitā rodati.
17. The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice.
dārikā / pakkositā / ammāya /
dhāvi / gehaṃ / bhuñjituṃ / odanaṃ
Ammāya pakkositā dārikā odanaṃ bhuñjituṃ gehaṃ dhāvi.
18. The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the
manussā / ussahitā / chindituṃ
/ latāyo / ārabhiṃsu / ākaḍḍhituṃ / sākhāyo
Latāyo chindituṃ ussahitā manussā sākhāyo ākaḍḍhituṃ ārabhiṃsu.
19. The farmer who makes a living righteously, ploughing his fields
experiences happiness with his wife and children.
kassako / jīvanto / dhammena /
kasanto / khette / vindati / sukhaṃ / bhariyāya ca / dārakehi ca
Dhammena jīvanto kassako khette kasanto bhariyāya ca dārakehi ca sukhaṃ
20. Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in
the human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
devā / cavitvā / devalokamhā /
uppajjitvā / manussalokamhi / modanti / suṇantā / dhammaṃ / desitaṃ /
Devalokamhā cavitvā manussalokamhi uppajjitvā devā Buddhena desitaṃ
dhammaṃ suṇantā modanti.
21. The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men.
corā / anusāsitā / samaṇena /
bhaviṃsu / sappurisā
Samaṇena anusāsitā corā sappurisā bhaviṃsu.
22. There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer.
bhaviṃsu / na / phalāni /
rukkhesu / ropitesu / kassakena
Kassakena ropitesu rukkhesu phalāni na bhaviṃsu.
23. Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried.
daṭṭhā / kukkurena / kaññā /
dhāvitvā / gehaṃ / rodi
Kukkurena daṭṭhā kaññā gehaṃ dhāvitvā rodi.
24. The minister is not known to the doctor.
amacco / hoti / na ñāto /
Amacco vejjena na ñāto hoti.
25. Seated under the tree the girls played with sand.
nisīnnayo / rukkhamūle /
dārikāyo / kīḷiṃsu / vālukāya
Rukkhamūle nisīnnayo dārikāyo vālukāya kīḷiṃsu.
26. Sons, do not drink liquor.
puttā / mā / pibatha / suraṃ
Puttā, mā suraṃ pibatha.
27. Mothers prevent children from evil.
ammāyo / nivārenti / dārake /
Ammāyo dārake pāpasmā nivārenti.
28. I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst.
ahaṃ / adāsiṃ/adadiṃ pānīyaṃ /
kukkurāya / pīḷitāya / pipāsena
Ahaṃ pipāsena pīḷitāya kukkurāya pānīyaṃ adāsiṃ/adadiṃ.
29. Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees.
disvā / luddakaṃ /
upasa'nkamantaṃ / mayaṃ / nilīyimha / rukkhesu
Upasa'nkamantaṃ luddakaṃ disvā mayaṃ rukkhesu nilīyimha.
30. We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks.
mayaṃ / paṭiyādetvā / dānāni /
saddhāya / dadimha / samaṇānaṃ
Mayaṃ saddhāya dānāni paṭiyādetvā samaṇānaṃ dadimha.
* Assa is the dative form of ayaṃ. In this case, assa kammassa = for
Pali Primer Exercise 20
Translate into English:
1. Bhūpālo rājiniyā saddhiṃ nāvāya nadiṃ taranto udake carante macche
olokento amaccehi saddhiṃ katheti.
king / with queen / by boat /
river / crossing / in water / moving / fish / looking (at) / with
ministers / speaks
Crossing the river by boat with (his) queen, the king looking at the
fish swimming in the water speaks with (his) ministers.
2. Pāniyaṃ pivitvā dārikāya bhūmiyaṃ nikkhitto patto bhinno hoti.
water / having drunk / by girl
/ on ground / placed / bowl / broken / is
The bowl placed on the ground by the girl after drinking water is
3. Kassakānaṃ gāviyo aṭaviyaṃ āhiṇḍitvā khettaṃ āgamiṃsu.
farmers' / cows / in forest /
having roamed / [to] field / came
The farmers' cows roamed in the forest and came to the field.
4. Rattiyā samuddasmiṃ patitā candassa rasmiyo oloketvā taruṇiyo
at night / on sea / fallen /
moon's / rays / having seen / young women / were happy
The young women, having seen the moonlight falling on the sea at night,
5. Upāsakā iddhiyā ākāse gacchantaṃ tāpasaṃ disvā pasannā honti.
lay devotees / by psychic power
/ through sky / going / ascetic / having seen / pleased (with) / are
The lay devotees are pleased seeing the ascetic going through the sky by
6. Bhaginiyā saddhiṃ pokkharaṇiyā tīre (bank) ṭhatvā so padumāni
with sister / pond's / on bank
/ having stood / he / lotuses / to pick / tried
Having stood on the bank of the pond with (his) sister, he tried to pick
7. Nāriyo vāpīsu nahāyituṃ vā (or) vatthāni dhovituṃ vā na icchiṃsu.
women / at tanks / to bathe or
/ clothes / to wash or / did not wish
The women did not wish to bathe or wash clothes at the tanks.
8. Yuvatiyā puṭṭhaṃ pañhaṃ vyākātuṃ asakkonto ahaṃ tāya (with her)
saddhiṃ sallapituṃ ārabhiṃ.
by maiden / asked / question /
to explain / unable / I / with her / to engage in conversation / began
Unable to explain the question asked by the maiden, I began to talk with
9. Asappurisassa puttena kataṃ pāpakammaṃ paṭicchādetuṃ ammā na
wicked man's / by son / done /
evil deed / to conceal / mother / did not try
Mother did not try to conceal the evil deed done by the wicked man's
[ The following is provided in the Key to Pali Primer. ]
Mother did not try to conceal the evil deed done by (her) wicked son.
10. Bhaginiyā dussena veṭhetvā mañcasmiṃ ṭhapitaṃ bhaṇḍaṃ itthī
by sister / in cloth / having
wrapped / on bed / kept / goods / woman / in box / placed
The woman placed in the box the goods wrapped in cloth and kept on the
bed by (her) sister.
11. Mā tumhe magge sayantaṃ kukkuraṃ viheṭhetha.
do not / you / on road /
sleeping / dog / harass
(You) Do not harass the dog sleeping on the road.
12. Sappuriso amacco dhanaṃ vissajjetvā yācakānaṃ vasituṃ sālāyo
gāmesu karitvā bhūpālaṃ ārocesi.
virtuous man / minister / money
/ having spent / for beggars / to live / halls / in villages / having
built / king / informed
The virtuous minister spent money and built halls in the villages for
beggars to live, and informed the king.
13. Kumāro suvaṃ hatthamhā muñcitvā taṃ uḍḍentaṃ passamāno rodanto
boy / parrot / from hand /
having released / it / flying / seeing / crying / under tree / stood
Having released the parrot from (his) hand, the boy seeing it flying
stood under the tree crying.
14. Saddhāya dānaṃ dadamānā kusalaṃ karontā sappurisā puna (again)
manussaloke uppajjituṃ patthenti.
with faith / alms / giving /
meritorious deeds / doing / good men / again / human world / to be born
Giving alms with faith and doing meritorious deeds, the good men aspire
to be born in the human world again.
15. Kumāro mañjūsaṃ vivaritvā sāṭakaṃ nīharitvā ammāya pesesi.
boy / box / having opened /
garment / having taken out / to mother / sent
The boy opened the box, took out the garment and sent (it) to (his)
Translate into Pali:
1. There are lotuses and fishes in ponds in the king's park.
santi / padumāni ca / macchā ca
/ pokkharaṇīsu / bhūpālassa / uyyāne
Bhūpālassa uyyāne pokkharaṇīsu padumāni ca macchā ca santi.
2. The young women picked lotuses from the tank and kept them on the
taruṇiyo / ocinitvā / padumāni
/ vāpiyā / ṭhapesuṃ / bhūmiyaṃ
Taruṇiyo vāpiyā padumāni ocinitvā bhūmiyaṃ ṭhapesuṃ.
3. The queen spoke with her sisters who came having crossed the river
rājinī / kathesi / bhaginīhi
saha / āgatāhi / taritvā / nadiṃ / doṇiyā
Doṇiyā nadiṃ taritvā āgatāhi bhaginīhi saha rājinī kathesi.
4. I saw the dog chasing the cow in the field.
ahaṃ / passiṃ / kukkuraṃ /
anubandhantaṃ / gāviṃ / khettasmiṃ
Ahaṃ khettasmiṃ gāviṃ anubandhantaṃ kukkuraṃ passiṃ
5. Women and girls did not climb trees to pick fruits and flowers.
nāriyo ca / kumāriyo ca / na
āruhiṃsu / rukkhe / ocinituṃ / phalāni ca / pupphāni ca
Nāriyo ca kumāriyo ca phalāni ca pupphāni ca ocinituṃ rukkhe na
6. You (pl.) went to the river to bathe and got frightened hearing
the peal of thunder (asanisaddaṃ).
tumhe / gantvā / nadiṃ /
nahāyituṃ / bhāyittha / sutvā / asanisaddaṃ
Nahāyituṃ nadiṃ gantvā tumhe asanisaddaṃ sutvā bhāyittha.
7. You (pl.) do not conceal the evil committed with your friends.
tumhe / mā / paṭiccādetha /
pāpaṃ / kataṃ / mittehi saha
Mā tumhe mittehi saha kataṃ pāpaṃ paṭiccādetha.
8. If you spent money to buy clothes, inform your mother.
sace / tvaṃ / vissajjeyyāsi /
mūlaṃ / kiṇituṃ / vatthāni / ārocehi / ammaṃ
Sace tvaṃ vatthāni kiṇituṃ mūlaṃ vissajjeyyāsi, ammaṃ ārocehi.
9. Send the lotuses wrapped in lotus leaves to the young girls seated
in the hall.
pesehi / padumāni / veṭhitāni /
paduma-paṇṇehi / taruṇīnaṃ / nisinnānaṃ / sālāyaṃ
Sālāyaṃ nisinnānaṃ taruṇīnaṃ paduma-paṇṇehi veṭhitāni padumāni pesehi.
10. We can explain the questions asked by the women in the assembly.
mayaṃ / sakkoma / vyākātuṃ /
pañhe / puṭṭhe / vanitāhi / sabhāyaṃ
Sabhāyaṃ vanitāhi puṭṭhe pañhe mayaṃ vyākātuṃ sakkoma.